Theory of electrical spin injection from a ferromagnetic (FM) metal into a normal (N) conductor is presented. We show that tunnel contacts (T) can dramatically increase spin injection and solve the problem of the mismatch in the conductivities of a FM metal and a semiconductor microstructure. We also present explicit expressions for the spin-valve resistance of FM-T-N- and FM-T-N-T-FM-junctions with tunnel contacts at the interfaces and show that the resistance includes both positive and negative contributions (Kapitza resistance and injection conductivity, respectively).
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