In the present chapter applications of thiophenes, oligothiophene, and polymers containing thiophene units are summarized. The focus lies on: Medicinal applications such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, HIV, and anticancer drug as well as thiophene-based antagonists to various receptors. Thiophenes as reactive intermediates are limited to photochemical and electrocyclic reactions, ring-opening to non-sulfur-containing compounds and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions. In the last decade, the use of poly- and oligothiophenes as photovoltaic and (semi)conducting materials is one of the fastest growing areas in the chemistry of thiophene derivatives only followed by dye chemistry (push-pull substituted compounds for nonlinear optical uses and photochromic dyes for data storage, etc.). Owing to the ongoing interest in supramolecular chemistry and noncovalent interactions, macrocycles (ring, catenanes, cyclophanes, and calixarene derivatives) based on the basic thiophene skeleton is an increasing area as well. The chapter is finished with a short update about organometallic compounds based on thiophenes.
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