Three phases or urban protest 1.1750-1900 Urban social movements tended to follow largely the patterns of the Classical age of Islam, he argued that same patterns of urban protest continued until 1900. prototype of urban protest at the end of the 19th century; gathering at the central mosque with ulama appointed to bear their grievances to the authorities. crowd then moved from mosque to citadel were demands were presented to local janissary/Mamluk commandars. Violence was limited and targets of the crowds selected grain storehouses, home of officlas and merchants, tax collection points. Symbolic world and framework of collective action. Howe were demands formulated/ Couched in which language/ Islamic, sharia, justice and injustice. BASICALLY HE SEES A CONTINUITY IN ISLAMIC PROVDING THE SYMBO0L TO URBAN PROTEST IN THE PERIOD. Mosque was the autonomous space in urban setting par excellence. Following Thompson, Burkes calls this the 'Islamic moral economy' Urban crowds inclded artsans, workers and Islamic students (tullab). By the end of the century the language of protest bagan to shift, critique to centralisedf state and of Europen encroachment. 2. YT revolution and Constitutional revolution marked by the entry of secular politics, era which ended in 1970s with the Islamic revolution. Old framework of Islamic moral economy no longer valid. new style of politcs characterised by strikes, student demonstrations and boycotts occurred prior to 1914. new style of popular mobilisation also reflected the changing morphology of cities and break down of traditional networks : creation of new districts and quarters, relocation of old families, and emergence of new elites. Composition of the crowds changes ddrammatically 9from artisans, guild members, tullab and sufis to modern activists, youth organisations etc.
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