There are no guidelines for the treatment of sleep apnea in heart failure. Central sleep apnea remains difficult to treat and well designed, long-term controlled studies are needed to determine if any treatment prolongs survival. However, based on the pathophysiologic consequences of sleep apnea on the cardiovascular system, studies associating excess mortality of heart failure patients with obstructive and central sleep apnea, and limited favorable therapeutic studies, it is important to continue to identify heart failure patients who may suffer from sleep apnea and treat them appropriately. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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