The G-protein-coupled receptor agonists CXCL12 (SDF-1, a chemokine) and thrombin showed opposite effects on growth and survival of multipotent and erythroid human hematopoietic progenitor cells. CXCL12 promoted growth in multipotent cells by activating the RhoA-Rho kinase pathway. Its effect was largely blocked by Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase, and by clostridial toxin B, a specific inhibitor of Rho family proteins. Rho activation required a Gi-mediated stimulation of tyrosine kinases, which was blocked by PP2 and tyrphostin AG 490, inhibitors of Src and Jak type kinases, respectively. By contrast, in erythroid cells, inhibitors of Src family and c-Abl tyrosine kinases (tyrphostin AG 82, PP2, imatinib) enhanced protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent cell growth and antagonized thrombin-promoted apoptosis by specifically stimulating PKCβ activity. The PKC activating phorbol ester PMA (a growth factor in erythroid cells) induced the activation of Lyn and c-Abl tyrosine kinases, thus establishing a feedback inhibition of PKCβ. Hence, developmental stage-specific crosstalk between PKC subtypes and tyrosine kinases appear to determine whether growth and survival of hematopoietic cells are promoted or inhibited by G-protein-coupled receptor agonists. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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