Nonhost resistance (NHR) of plants to fungal pathogens comprises different defense layers. Epidermal penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to Phakopsora pachyrhizi requires functional PEN1, PEN2 and PEN3 genes, whereas post-invasion resistance in the mesophyll depends on the combined functionality of PEN2, PAD4 and SAG101. Other genetic components of Arabidopsis post-invasion mesophyll resistance remain elusive. We performed comparative transcriptional profiling of wild-type, pen2 and pen2 pad4 sag101 mutants after inoculation with P. pachyrhizi to identify a novel trait for mesophyll NHR. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and microscopic analysis confirmed the essential role of the candidate gene in mesophyll NHR. UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT84A2/bright trichomes 1 (BRT1) is a novel component of Arabidopsis mesophyll NHR to P. pachyrhizi. BRT1 is a putative cytoplasmic enzyme in phenylpropanoid metabolism. BRT1 is specifically induced in pen2 with post-invasion resistance to P. pachyrhizi. Silencing or mutation of BRT1 increased haustoria formation in pen2 mesophyll. Yet, the brt1 mutation did not affect NHR to P. pachyrhizi in wild-type plants. We assign a novel function to BRT1, which is important for post-invasion NHR of Arabidopsis to P. pachyrhizi. BRT1 might serve to confer durable resistance against P. pachyrhizi to soybean.
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