Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 14, issue 2 (2007) pp. 150-164
This study analyzes the household consumption patterns in urban and rural regions using Household Integrated Expenditure Survey of Pakistan for the year 2001-2002. Engel curves are estimated by spline quadratic expenditure system for expenditures on 18 commodity groups. The breakdown of the household size into demographic groups by age and sex has proved to be a successful exercise in explaining consumption patterns. This study shows that consumption of food and non-food items is significantly affected by changes in total expenditure and household size. According to the findings of the current study, grains, dairy, housing and health appear as luxury commodities in urban areas while poultry, fruit, electricity, entertainment and durables are treated as luxuries in the rural area. Moreover, poverty has proved to be a main cause of illiteracy because education appears as a luxury commodity for the poor. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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