Memory antibody responses are typically seen to T-cell-dependent antigens and are characterized by the rapid production of high titers of high-affinity antigen-specific antibody. The hallmark of T-cell-dependent memory B cells is their expression of a somatically mutated, isotype-switched B-cell antigen receptor, features that are mainly generated in germinal centers. Classical studies have focused on isotype-switched memory B cells (mainly IgG isotype) and demonstrated their unique intrinsic properties in terms of localization and responsiveness to antigen re-exposure. However, recent advances in monitoring antigen-experienced B cells have revealed the considerable heterogeneity of memory B cells, which include unswitched IgM(+) and/or unmutated memory B cells. The IgM and IgG type memory B cells reside in distinct locations and appear to possess distinct origins and effector functions, together orchestrating humoral memory responses.
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