A new statistical test for random bit generators is presented which, in contrast to presently used statistical tests, is universal in the sense that it can detect any significant deviation of a device's output statistics from the statistics of a truly random bit source when the device can be modled as an ergodic stationary source with finite memory but arbitrary (unknown) stat transition probabilities. The test parameter is closely related to the device's per-bit entropy which is shown to be the correct quality measure for a secret-key source in a cryptographic application. The test hence measures the cryptographic badness of a device's possible defect. The test is easy to implement and very fast and thus well-suited for practical applications. A sample program listing is provided.
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