A 28-year-old woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) had attempted four assisted conception treatments, all of which were complicated by lack of response of the endometrium to the hypo-oestrogenic state induced with gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa). Consequently, two treatment cycles were abandoned, one prior to the ovulation induction of a fresh IVF treatment and the other prior to oestrogen replacement for a frozen-thawed embryo transfer treatment cycle. Extended down-regulation eventually resulted in endometrial thinning and allowed completion of the other two treatments, but the outcome was negative. A targeted mid-cycle ultrasound scan in a natural cycle at follow-up showed thick, non-homogenous endometrium. A repeat hysteroscopy on this occasion showed abnormal endometrium with chalk-like deposits. Histological diagnosis was chronic endometritis and endometrial hyperplasia with focal atypia. Microbiological tests, including those for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, were negative. Because of atypical endometrial hyperplasia, this patient is currently under close follow-up by the original referring team. This case highlights inherent endometrial pathology presenting as non-responding endometrium to hormonal down-regulation, the limitations of conventional ultrasound scans, and the complimentary role of concomitant hysteroscopy in the correct identification of endometrial lesions that may negatively affect the assisted conception treatments.
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