Using transformative learning theory to develop metacognitive and self-reflective skills in pharmacy students: A primer for pharmacy educators

  • Lonie J
  • Desai K
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Objective: The objective of this article is to provide a review of Transformative Learning Theory and identify its application to pharmacy education. Background: The pharmacy profession continues to struggle with the transition from product-centered to patient-centered service delivery. Revised Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) learning outcome requirements, as well as new technology, government regulations, and reimbursement models, may soon mean obsolescence for pharmacists who do not possess the necessary introspective and metacognitive abilities that can lead to mature patient-centered skill sets. Method: Snowball method was used to review Transformative Learning Theory and find strategies to apply to teaching in Pharmacy. Conclusion: Pharmacy educators can use Transformative Learning Theory or aspects of the theory to develop specific self-awareness and metacognitive skills needed by all health care professionals. In addition, transformative teaching can provide a powerful context not only for professional education but also for lifelong learning. Transformative teaching is a pedagogy that makes use of Transformative Learning concepts.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Metacognition
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacy education
  • Self-awareness
  • Self-reflection
  • Transformative learning

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