Vascular injuries produce ischemia, and their repair produces reperfusion. Ischemia and reperfusion produce compartment syndrome. Although a local event, a compartment syndrome risks not only the affected extremity, but also the life of the patient. A high index of suspicion coupled with adequate knowledge of subtle clinical symptoms (and confirmed by intracompartmental pressure measurement) improve management of compartment syndrome, and this article discusses common pitfalls in its diagnosis and treatment.
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