Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to study the distribution of polymers and cross-linking ions in alginate-poly-L-lysine (PLL) -alginate microcapsules made by fluorescent-labeled polymers. CLSM studies of Ca-alginate gel beads made in the presence and absence of non-gelling sodium ions revealed a more inhomogeneous distribution of alginate in beads formed in the absence of non-gelling ions. In the formation of alginate-PLL capsules, the polymer gradients in the preformed gel core were destabilized by the presence of non-gelling ions in the washing step and in the PLL solution. Ca-alginate gels preserved the inhomogeneous structure by exposure to ion-free solution in contrast to exposure to non-gelling ions (Na(+)). By exchanging Ca(2+) with Ba(2+) (10 mM), extremely inhomogeneous gel beads were formed that preserved their structure during the washing and exposure to PLL in saline. PLL was shown to bind at the very surface of the alginate core, forming a shell-like membrane. The thickness of the PLL-layer increased about 100% after 2 weeks of storage, but no further increase was seen after 2 years of storage. The coating alginate was shown to overlap the PLL layer. No difference in binding could be observed among coating alginates of different composition. This paper shows an easy and novel method to study the distribution of alginate and PLL in intact microcapsules. As the labeling procedures are easy to perform, the method can also be used for a variety of other polymers in other microencapsulation systems.
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