Imaging is one of the fastest growing fields of study. New technologies and multimodal approaches are increasing the application of imaging to determine molecular targets and functional processes in vivo. The identification of a specific target, transporter, or biological process using imaging has introduced major breakthroughs to the field of endocrinology primarily utilizing computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging. This review provides a general background to the specific developments in imaging that pertains to in vivo function and target identification in endocrine-based diseases.
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