The Schultz site (20SA2) is a benchmark site for understanding the Woodland adaptations ofthe Upper Great Lakes, although its older excavation data is not comparable with recent Eastern Woodlands research, which consistently usesfine-grained recov? ery techniques. The 1991 Schultz-site research collected supplementary and upgraded subsistence and environmental data to address questions about regional transformations from hunting and gathering to horticulture. In addition, questions regarding the role of aquatic and wetland resources, and how environmental change affected the availability and productivity of these alternative resources, were addressed. Results of faunal, floral, and geo archaeological research reveal that Woodland economies in the Saginaw region ofthe Upper Great Lakes were keyed to environmental changes affecting wetland availability and pro? ductivity. The Early Woodland presence of cucurbits does not appear economically important until later when it is combined with more reliable supplementary food sources. Although chenopod is present during the Middle Woodland and early Late Woodland, wetland plant and animal resources act as surrogates for other starchy and oily seeded annuals common in other portions ofthe Midwest and in the Mid-South. Maize apparently does not achieve economic significance until the Late Wood? land period. A model ofthis combined northern and southern strategy is developed.
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