Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study.
- ISSN: 0098-7484
- PubMed: 11966382
CONTEXT: Components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), including obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Although diet has been postulated to influence IRS, the independent effects of dairy consumption on development of this syndrome have not been investigated.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To examine associations between dairy intake and incidence of IRS, adjusting for confounding lifestyle and dietary factors.\n\nDESIGN: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based prospective study.\n\nSETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: General community sample from 4 US metropolitan areas of 3157 black and white adults aged 18 to 30 years who were followed up from 1985-1986 to 1995-1996.\n\nMAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ten-year cumulative incidence of IRS and its association with dairy consumption, measured by diet history interview.\n\nRESULTS: Dairy consumption was inversely associated with the incidence of all IRS components among individuals who were overweight (body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) at baseline but not among leaner individuals (body mass index < 25 kg/m(2)). The adjusted odds of developing IRS (2 or more components) were 72% lower (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.58) among overweight individuals in the highest (> or =35 times per week, 24/102 individuals) compared with the lowest (<10 times per week, 85/190 individuals) category of dairy consumption. Each daily occasion of dairy consumption was associated with a 21% lower odds of IRS (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.88). These associations were similar for blacks and whites and for men and women. Other dietary factors, including macronutrients and micronutrients, did not explain the association between dairy intake and IRS.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns characterized by increased dairy consumption have a strong inverse association with IRS among overweight adults and may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.