Temporal variations of black carbon in Guangzhou, China, in Summer 2006
In situ measurements of the mass concentration of black carbon (BC) and mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were made at Guangzhou, an urban measurement site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, in July 2006. The average +/- standard deviation (SD) concentrations of BC, CO, and CO2 were 4.7 +/- 2.3 mu gC m(-3), 798 +/- 459 ppbv, and 400 +/- 13 ppmv, respectively. The trends of these species were mainly controlled by synoptic-scale changes in meteorology during the campaign. Based on back trajectories, data are analyzed separately for two different air mass types representing northerly and southerly flows. The northerly air masses, which constituted similar to 25% of the campaign, originated mostly in the PRD and hence represent observations on regional scales. On the other hand, during southerly flow (similar to 75%), the measurements were influenced by dilution due to cleaner marine air. The diurnal patterns of BC, CO, and CO2 exhibited peak concentrations during the morning and evening hours coinciding with rush-hour traffic. The ratios of OC/BC were lower during the morning hour peaks in the concentrations of primary pollutants due to their fresh emissions mainly from vehicular traffic in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of BC observed in southerly air masses tended to follow the traffic patterns of heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) in Guangzhou, while the roles of other sources need to be investigated. The slopes of Delta BC/Delta CO, Delta BC/Delta CO2, and Delta CO/Delta CO2 observed during northerly flows were 0.0045 mu gC m(-3)/ppbv, 0.13 mu gC m(-3)/ppmv, and 49.4 ppbv/ppmv, respectively, agreeing reasonably with their respective emission ratios derived from regional emission inventories.