Toward a Hierarchical Goal Theory Model of School Motivation
Instead of concentrating on mastery and performance goal orientations, recent research on school motivation has suggested a multidimensional structure of achievement goal orientations. Students in Australian high schools (N =774) responded to 35 survey items on 10 goal orientation constructs (effort, task, sense of purpose, praise, competition, power, token, social concern, social dependence, and affiliation) and 14 items on general mastery, general performance, general social, and global motivation constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a hierarchical, multidimensional school motivation construct. The hierarchical, multidimensional model has provided a strong theoretical structure for further school motivation research.