Ethical principles of psychologis...
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct 2002 History and Effective Date Footnote CONTENTS INTRODUCTION AND APPLICABILITY PREAMBLE GENERAL PRINCIPLES Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility Principle C: Integrity Principle D: Justice Principle E: Respect for People���s Rights and Dignity ETHICAL STANDARDS 1. Resolving Ethical Issues 1.01 Misuse of Psychologists��� Work 1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority 1.03 Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands 1.04 Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations 1.05 Reporting Ethical Violations 1.06 Cooperating With Ethics Committees 1.07 Improper Complaints 1.08 Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents 2. Competence 2.01 Boundaries of Competence 2.02 Providing Services in Emergencies 2.03 Maintaining Competence 2.04 Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments 2.05 Delegation of Work to Others 2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts 3. Human Relations 3.01 Unfair Discrimination 3.02 Sexual Harassment 3.03 Other Harassment 3.04 Avoiding Harm 3.05 Multiple Relationships 3.06 Conflict of Interest 3.07 Third-Party Requests for Services 3.08 Exploitative Relationships 3.09 Cooperation With Other Professionals 3.10 Informed Consent 3.11 Psychological Services Delivered To or Through Organizations 3.12 Interruption of Psychological Services 4. Privacy And Confidentiality 4.01 Maintaining Confidentiality 4.02 Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality 4.03 Recording 4.04 Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy 4.05 Disclosures 4.06 Consultations 4.07 Use of Confidential Information for Didactic or Other Purposes 5. Advertising and Other Public Statements 5.01 Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements 5.02 Statements by Others 5.03 Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs 5.04 Media Presentations 5.05 Testimonials 5.06 In-Person Solicitation 6. Record Keeping and Fees 6.01 Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records 6.02 Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work 6.03 Withholding Records for Nonpayment 6.04 Fees and Financial Arrangements 6.05 Barter With Clients/Patients 6.06 Accuracy in Reports to Payors and Funding Sources 6.07 Referrals and Fees 7. Education and Training 7.01 Design of Education and Training Programs 7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training Programs 7.03 Accuracy in Teaching 7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information 7.05 Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy 7.06 Assessing Student and Supervisee Performance 7.07 Sexual Relationships With Students and Supervisees 8. Research and Publication 8.01 Institutional Approval 8.02 Informed Consent to Research 8.03 Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research 8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants 8.05 Dispensing With Informed Consent for Research 8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation 8.07 Deception in Research 8.08 Debriefing 8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research 8.10 Reporting Research Results 8.11 Plagiarism 8.12 Publication Credit 8.13 Duplicate Publication of Data 8.14 Sharing Research Data for Verification 8.15 Reviewers 9. Assessment 9.01 Bases for Assessments 9.02 Use of Assessments 9.03 Informed Consent in Assessments 9.04 Release of Test Data 9.05 Test Construction 9.06 Interpreting Assessment Results 9.07 Assessment by Unqualified Persons 9.08 Obsolete Tests and Outdated Test Results 9.09 Test Scoring and Interpretation Services 9.10 Explaining Assessment Results 9.11. Maintaining Test Security 10. Therapy 10.01 Informed Consent to Therapy 10.02 Therapy Involving Couples or Families 10.03 Group Therapy 10.04 Providing Therapy to Those Served by Others 10.05 Sexual Intimacies With Current Therapy Clients/Patients 10.06 Sexual Intimacies With Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients 10.07 Therapy With Former Sexual Partners 10.08 Sexual Intimacies With Former Therapy Clients/Patients 10.09 Interruption of Therapy 10.10 Terminating Therapy
APA Ethics Code 2002 Page 2 INTRODUCTION AND APPLICABILITY The American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles (A ��� E), and specific Ethical Standards. The Introduction discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code. The Preamble and General Principles are aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology. Although the Preamble and General Principles are not themselves enforceable rules, they should be considered by psychologists in arriving at an ethical course of action. The Ethical Standards set forth enforceable rules for conduct as psychologists. Most of the Ethical Standards are written broadly, in order to apply to psychologists in varied roles, although the application of an Ethical Standard may vary depending on the context. The Ethical Standards are not exhaustive. The fact that a given conduct is not specifically addressed by an Ethical Standard does not mean that it is necessarily either ethical or unethical. This Ethics Code applies only to psychologists' activities that are part of their scientific, educational, or professional roles as psychologists. Areas covered include but are not limited to the clinical, counseling, and school practice of psychology research teaching supervision of trainees public service policy development social intervention development of assessment instruments conducting assessments educational counseling organizational consulting forensic activities program design and evaluation and administration. This Ethics Code applies to these activities across a variety of contexts, such as in person, postal, telephone, internet, and other electronic transmissions. These activities shall be distinguished from the purely private conduct of psychologists, which is not within the purview of the Ethics Code. Membership in the APA commits members and student affiliates to comply with the standards of the APA Ethics Code and to the rules and procedures used to enforce them. Lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an Ethical Standard is not itself a defense to a charge of unethical conduct. The procedures for filing, investigating, and resolving complaints of unethical conduct are described in the current Rules and Procedures of the APA Ethics Committee. APA may impose sanctions on its members for violations of the standards of the Ethics Code, including termination of APA membership, and may notify other bodies and individuals of its actions. Actions that violate the standards of the Ethics Code may also lead to the imposition of sanctions on psychologists or students whether or not they are APA members by bodies other than APA, including state psychological associations, other professional groups, psychology boards, other state or federal agencies, and payors for health services. In addition, APA may take action against a member after his or her conviction of a felony, expulsion or suspension from an affiliated state psychological association, or suspension or loss of licensure. When the sanction to be imposed by APA is less than expulsion, the 2001 Rules and Procedures do not guarantee an opportunity for an in-person hearing, but generally provide that complaints will be resolved only on the basis of a submitted record. The Ethics Code is intended to provide guidance for psychologists and standards of professional conduct that can be applied by the APA and by other bodies that choose to adopt them. The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of civil liability. Whether a psychologist has violated the Ethics Code standards does not by itself determine whether the psychologist is legally liable in a court action, whether a contract is enforceable, or whether other legal consequences occur. The modifiers used in some of the standards of this Ethics Code (e.g., reasonably, appropriate, potentially) are included in the standards when they would (1) allow professional judgment on the part of psychologists, (2) eliminate injustice or inequality that would occur without the modifier, (3) ensure applicability across the broad range of activities conducted by psychologists, or (4) guard against a set of rigid rules that might be quickly outdated. As used in this Ethics Code, the term reasonable means the prevailing professional judgment of psychologists engaged in similar activities in similar circumstances, given the knowledge the psychologist had or should have had at the time. In the process of making decisions regarding their professional behavior, psychologists must consider this Ethics Code in addition to applicable laws and psychology board regulations. In applying the Ethics Code to their professional work, psychologists may consider other materials and guidelines that have been adopted or endorsed by scientific and professional psychological organizations and the dictates of their own conscience, as well as consult with others within the field. If this Ethics Code establishes a higher standard of conduct than is required by law, psychologists must meet the higher ethical standard. If psychologists' ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists make known their commitment to this Ethics Code and take steps to resolve the conflict in a responsible manner. If the conflict is unresolvable via such means, psychologists may adhere to the requirements of the law, regulations, or other governing authority in keeping with basic principles of human rights.
APA Ethics Code 2002 Page 3 PREAMBLE Psychologists are committed to increasing scientific and professional knowledge of behavior and people���s understanding of themselves and others and to the use of such knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, organizations, and society. Psychologists respect and protect civil and human rights and the central importance of freedom of inquiry and expression in research, teaching, and publication. They strive to help the public in developing informed judgments and choices concerning human behavior. In doing so, they perform many roles, such as researcher, educator, diagnostician, therapist, supervisor, consultant, administrator, social interventionist, and expert witness. This Ethics Code provides a common set of principles and standards upon which psychologists build their professional and scientific work. This Ethics Code is intended to provide specific standards to cover most situations encountered by psychologists. It has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work and the education of members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline. The development of a dynamic set of ethical standards for psychologists��� work-related conduct requires a personal commitment and lifelong effort to act ethically to encourage ethical behavior by students, supervisees, employees, and colleagues and to consult with others concerning ethical problems. GENERAL PRINCIPLES This section consists of General Principles. General Principles, as opposed to Ethical Standards, are aspirational in nature. Their intent is to guide and inspire psychologists toward the very highest ethical ideals of the profession. General Principles, in contrast to Ethical Standards, do not represent obligations and should not form the basis for imposing sanctions. Relying upon General Principles for either of these reasons distorts both their meaning and purpose. Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm. In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research. When conflicts occur among psychologists' obligations or concerns, they attempt to resolve these conflicts in a responsible fashion that avoids or minimizes harm. Because psychologists' scientific and professional judgments and actions may affect the lives of others, they are alert to and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational, or political factors that might lead to misuse of their influence. Psychologists strive to be aware of the possible effect of their own physical and mental health on their ability to help those with whom they work. Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility Psychologists establish relationships of trust with those with whom they work. They are aware of their professional and scientific responsibilities to society and to the specific communities in which they work. Psychologists uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, accept appropriate responsibility for their behavior, and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm. Psychologists consult with, refer to, or cooperate with other professionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the best interests of those with whom they work. They are concerned about the ethical compliance of their colleagues' scientific and professional conduct. Psychologists strive to contribute a portion of their professional time for little or no compensation or personal advantage. Principle C: Integrity Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology. In these activities psychologists do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation of fact. Psychologists strive to keep their promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. In situations in which deception may be ethically justifiable to maximize benefits and minimize harm, psychologists have a serious obligation to consider the need for, the possible consequences of, and their responsibility to correct any resulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the use of such techniques. Principle D: Justice Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists. Psychologists exercise reasonable judgment and take precautions to ensure that their potential biases, the boundaries of their competence, and the limitations of their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices.