In loving memory of Asher Peres, we discuss a most important and influential paper written in 1935 by his thesis supervisor and mentor Nathan Rosen, together with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky. In that paper, the trio known as EPR questioned…
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Following Verlinde's recent work on the origin of gravity and the laws of Newton, we consider further the origin of the starting point of Verlinde's work and Unruh effect. Simple derivations are given for this starting point and Unruh effect with…

Choosing good problems is essential for being a good scientist. But what is a good problem, and how do you choose one? The subject is not usually discussed explicitly within our profession. Scientists are expected to be smart enough to figure it out…

We observe strong violation of Bells inequality in an EinsteinPodolskyRosentype experiment with independent observers. Our experiment definitely implements the ideas behind the wellknown work by Aspect et al. We for the first time fully enforce…

The recent interest in aspects common to quantum information and condensed matter has prompted a prosperous activity at the border of these disciplines that were far distant until few years ago. Numerous interesting questions have been addressed so…

The entanglement of a pure state of a pair of quantum systems is defined as the entropy of either member of the pair. The entanglement of formation of a mixed state is defined as the minimum average entanglement of an ensemble of pure states that…

Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is formulated here in a different way. It is, however, mathematically equivalent to the familiar formulation. In quantum mechanics the probability of an event which can happen in several different ways is the…

Advances in mathematics and physics have often occurred together. The development of Newton’s theory of mechanics and the simultaneous development of the techniques of calculus constitute a classic example of this phenomenon. However, as mathematics…

We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is…

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of tricklebed reactors with detailed interstitial flow solvers has remained elusive mostly due to the extreme CPU and memory intensive constraints. Here, we developed a comprehensible and scalable CFD…

Topological quantum computation has recently emerged as one of the most exciting approaches to constructing a faulttolerant quantum computer. The proposal relies on the existence of topological states of matter whose quasiparticle excitations are…

Decoherence is caused by the interaction with the environment. Environment monitors certain observables of the system, destroying interference between the pointer states corresponding to their eigenvalues. This leads to environmentinduced…

In these lecture notes, an introduction to superstring theory is presented. Classical strings, covariant and lightcone quantization, supersymmetric strings, anomaly cancelation, compactification, Tduality, supersymmetry breaking, and threshold…

A spin1/2 system on a honeycomb lattice is studied. The interactions between nearest neighbors are of XX, YY or ZZ type, depending on the direction of the link; different types of interactions may differ in strength. The model is solved exactly by…

All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say: {\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory}. But the essence of quantum formalism  entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen and…

We present a classical protocol to efficiently simulate any purestate quantum computation that involves only a restricted amount of entanglement. More generally, we show how to classically simulate purestate quantum computations on n qubits by…

A state of a composite quantum system is called classically correlated if it can be approximated by convex combinations of product states, and EinsteinPodolskyRosen correlated otherwise. Any classically correlated state can be modeled by a…

String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, worldsheet…

An unknown quantum state ‖φ〉 can be disassembled into, then later reconstructed from, purely classical information and purely nonclassical EinsteinPodolskyRosen (EPR) correlations. To do so the sender, ‘‘Alice,’’ and the receiver, ‘‘Bob,’’ must…

Quantum states are the key mathematical objects in quantum theory. It is therefore surprising that physicists have been unable to agree on what a quantum state truly represents. One possibility is that a pure quantum state corresponds directly to…
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