Avian eggshell membrane (ESM) is a natural biomaterial that has been used as an alternative natural bandage to cure wounds, and is available in large quantities from egg industries. We have previously demonstrated that processed eggshell membrane powder (PEP), aiming to be used in a low cost wound healing product, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we further investigated effects of PEP on MMP activities in vitro (a dermal fibroblast cell culture system) and in vivo (a mouse skin wound healing model). Three days incubation with PEP in cell culture led to rearrangement of the actin-cytoskeleton and vinculin in focal adhesions and increased syndecan-4 shedding. In addition, we observed increased matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP-2) enzyme activation, without effects on protein levels of MMP-2 or its regulators (membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (TIMP-2). Longer incubation (10 days) led to increased protein levels of MMP-2 and its regulators. We also observed an increased alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production, suggesting an effect of PEP on myofibroblast differentiation. In vivo, using the mouse skin wound healing model, PEP treatment (3 days) increased MMP activity at the wound edges, along with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels, and increased keratinocyte cell proliferation. Altogether, our data suggest PEP stimulates MMP activity, and with a positive effect on early cellular events during wound healing.
Vuong, T. T., Rønning, S. B., Ahmed, T. A. E., Brathagen, K., Høst, V., Hincke, M. T., … Pedersen, M. E. (2018). Processed eggshell membrane powder regulates cellular functions and increase MMP-activity important in early wound healing processes. PLoS ONE, 13(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201975