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Background: Febrile Urinary Tract Infection (FUTI) is frequently treated initially with intravenous antibiotics, followed by oral antibiotics guided by clinical response and bacterial susceptibility patterns. Due to increasing infection rates with multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae, antibiotic options for stepdown treatment decline and patients more frequently require continued intravenous antibiotic treatment for FUTI. Fosfomycin is an antibiotic with high bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and current resistance rates are low in most countries. Oral Fosfomycin-Trometamol 3000 mg (FT) reaches appropriate antibiotic concentrations in urine and blood and is considered safe. As such, it is a potential alternative for stepdown treatment. Methods: The FORECAST study (Fosfomycin Randomized controlled trial for E.coli urinary tract infections as Alternative Stepdown Treatment) is a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority trial in which 240 patients will be randomly allocated to a stepdown treatment with FT or ciprofloxacin (standard of care) for FUTI, caused by Escherichia coli with in vitro susceptibility to both antibiotics. The study population consists of consenting female patients (≥18 years) with community acquired E. coli FUTI. After intravenous antibiotic treatment during at least 48 (but less than 120) hours, and if eligibility criteria for iv-oral switch are met, patients receive either FT (3 g every 24 h) or ciprofloxacin (500 mg every 12 h) for a total antibiotic duration of 10 days. The primary endpoint is clinical cure (resolution of symptoms) 6-10 days post-treatment. Secondary endpoints are microbiological cure 6-10 days post-treatment, clinical cure, mortality, ICU admittance, relapse, reinfection, readmission, additional antibiotic use for UTI, early study discontinuation, adverse events, days of hospitalization and days of absenteeism within 30-35 days post-treatment. The sample size is based on achieving non-inferiority on the primary endpoint, applying a non-inferiority margin of 10%, a two-sided p-value of < 0.05 and a power of 80%. Discussion: The study aims to demonstrate non-inferiority of oral fosfomycin, compared to oral ciprofloxacin, in the stepdown treatment of E. coli FUTI. Trial registration: Registered at the Nederlands trial register (Dutch trial register) on 4-10-2017.
Ten Doesschate, T., Van Mens, S. P., Van Nieuwkoop, C., Geerlings, S. E., Hoepelman, A. I. M., & Bonten, M. J. M. (2018). Oral fosfomycin versus ciprofloxacin in women with E.coli febrile urinary tract infection, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized controlled non-inferiority trial (FORECAST) 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1103 Clinical Sciences. BMC Infectious Diseases, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3562-2
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