Anopheles bionomics in a malaria endemic area of southern Thailand

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Abstract

Background: Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) could accelerate malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This study was performed to characterize the bionomics of Anopheles in Surat Thani province, Thailand. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected via human landing collections between February and October 2019. Anopheles mosquitoes were morphologically identified to species. Primary Anopheles malaria vectors were dissected to assess parity status, and a subset were evaluated for molecular identification and Plasmodium detection. Results: A total of 17,348 mosquitoes were collected during the study period; of these, 5777 were Anopheles mosquitoes. Morphological studies identified 15 Anopheles species, of which the most abundant were Anopheles minimus (s.l.) (87.16%, n = 5035), An. dirus s.l. (7.05%, n = 407) and An. barbirostris s.l. (2.86%, n = 165). Molecular identification confirmed that of the An. minimus s.l. mosquitoes collected, 99.80% were An. minimus (s.s.) (n = 484) and 0.2% were An. aconitus (n = 1), of the An. dirus (s.l.) collected, 100% were An. baimaii (n = 348), and of the An. maculatus (s.l.) collected, 93.62% were An. maculatus (s.s.) (n = 44) and 6.38% were An. sawadwongporni (n = 3). No Anopheles mosquito tested was Plasmodium positive (0/879). An average of 11.46 Anopheles were captured per collector per night. There were differences between species in hour of collection (Kruskal–Wallis H-test: χ2 = 80.89, P < 0.0001, n = 5666), with more An. barbirostris (s.l.) and An. maculatus (s.l.) caught earlier compared to An. minimus (s.l.) (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and An. dirus (s.l.) (P = 0.0082 and P < 0.001, respectively). The proportion of parous An. minimus (s.l.) captured by hour increased throughout the night (Wald Chi-square: χ2 = 17.31, P = 0.000, odds ratio = 1.0535, 95% confidence interval 1.0279–1.0796, n = 3400). Overall, An. minimus (s.l.) parity was 67.68% (2375/3509) with an intra-cluster correlation of 0.0378. A power calculation determined that an An. minimus (s.l.) parity reduction treatment effect size = 34%, with four clusters per treatment arm and a minimum of 300 mosquitoes dissected per cluster, at an α = 0.05, will provide 82% power to detect a significant difference following ivermectin MDA. Conclusions: The study area in Surat Thani province is an ideal location to evaluate the impact of ivermectin MDA on An. minimus parity. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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Wamaket, N., Khamprapa, O., Chainarin, S., Thamsawet, P., Ninsaeng, U., Thongsalee, S., … Kobylinski, K. C. (2021). Anopheles bionomics in a malaria endemic area of southern Thailand. Parasites and Vectors, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04870-8

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