Local drug delivery techniques, such as convention-enhanced delivery (CED), are promising novel strategies for delivering therapeutic agents otherwise limited by systemic toxicity and blood-brain-barrier restrictions. CED uses positive pressure to deliver infusate homogeneously into interstitial space, but its distribution is dependent upon appropriate tissue targeting and underlying neuroarchitecture. To investigate effects of local tissue pathology and associated edema on infusate distribution, CED was applied to the hippocampi of rats that underwent electrically-induced, self-sustaining status epilepticus (SE), a prolonged seizure. Infusion occurred 24 hours post-SE, using a macromolecular tracer, the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadolinium chelated with diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and covalently attached to albumin (Gd-albumin). High-resolution T1- and T2-relaxation-weighted MR images were acquired at 11.1 Tesla in vivo prior to infusion to generate baseline contrast enhancement images and visualize morphological changes, respectively. T1-weighted imaging was repeated post-infusion to visualize final contrast-agent distribution profiles. Histological analysis was performed following imaging to characterize injury. Infusions of Gd-albumin into injured hippocampi resulted in larger distribution volumes that correlated with increased injury severity, as measured by hyperintense regions seen in T2-weighted images and corresponding histological assessments of neuronal degeneration, myelin degradation, astrocytosis, and microglial activation. Edematous regions included the CA3 hippocampal subfield, ventral subiculum, piriform and entorhinal cortex, amygdalar nuclei, middle and laterodorsal/lateroposterior thalamic nuclei. This study demonstrates MR-visualized injury processes are reflective of cellular alterations that influence local distribution volume, and provides a quantitative basis for the planning of local therapeutic delivery strategies in pathological brain regions. © 2013 Kantorovich et al.
Kantorovich, S., Astary, G. W., King, M. A., Mareci, T. H., Sarntinoranont, M., & Carney, P. R. (2013). Influence of neuropathology on convection-enhanced delivery in the rat hippocampus. PLoS ONE, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080606