Objectives The effectiveness of treatment after cessation of nivolumab in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well investigated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the clinical benefit of post-nivolumab treatment in such patients. Materials and methods A retrospective review was conducted on patients who received treatment after cessation of nivolumab due to disease progression or adverse events at the Toneyama National Hospital between January 2016 and April 2017. Results Among 64 patients treated with nivolumab, 26 patients received treatment after cessation of nivolumab due to disease progression (n = 21) or adverse events (n = 5). The median age of the patients was 68 years and 19 patients were male. Nineteen patients had performance status (PS) 1 or less at initiation of post-nivolumab treatment. Four, 20, and 2 patients were treated with platinum doublets, a single agent, and molecular targeting agents, respectively. Response rate, disease control rate, and median progression-free survival of first-line post-nivolumab treatment were 34.6% (9 patients), 73.1% (19 patients), and 2.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7–5.2), respectively. Adverse events ( grade 3) and treatment cessation were observed in 57.7% (15 patients) and 19.2% (5 patients), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences for the majority of patient characteristics between the groups with (n = 26) and without post-nivolumab treatment. However, PS at cessation of nivolumab and post-progression survival (PPS) after cessation of nivolumab (median PPS: 12.6 vs. 1.4 months, 95% CI: 3.8–14.7 vs. 0.4–2.2) were significantly different between the groups. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed significant correlation of PS at cessation of nivolumab (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.13–0.87) and post-nivolumab treatment (HR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.08–0.43) with prolonged PPS after nivolumab. Conclusion Median post-progression survival in patients with advanced NSCLC who received post-nivolumab treatment was approximately 1 year.
Yano, Y., Kurebe, H., Edahiro, R., Hosono, Y., Nakatsubo, S., Nishida, K., … Mori, M. (2018). Post-progression survival after cessation of treatment with nivolumab for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: A retrospective study. PLoS ONE, 13(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203070