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Introduction. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is universally accepted as a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma. There are conflicting reports on prognosis, and few data on response to treatment exist. Currently, we do not have any effective treatment for the metastatic disease apart from surgical procedures. Current strategies are based on results obtained in the context of clear cell-type renal cell carcinoma. Separate trials for rare histologies seem unfeasible and are unlikely to be performed. For these cases, clinical observations are an important part for advancing therapeutic insight. In recent years, novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been shown to have significant clinical benefit in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Case presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with advanced chromophobe renal cell carcinoma treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and subsequently with sorafenib and the mammalian target of the rapamycin inhibitor everolimus, achieving a prolonged response and significant clinical benefit. We report an unexpectedly high efficacy of everolimus as a third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Up to now, no published data from randomized clinical studies have addressed the question of efficacy of everolimus as a third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma treated successfully with sequential tyrosine kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor therapy. Notably, the time on treatment with sunitinib exceeded four years. The case presented here implies that everolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. © 2012 Michalaki and Gennatas; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Michalaki, V., & Gennatas, C. (2012). Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with prolonged response to targeted therapy: A case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-6-115