Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB) is a key virulence factor of bacterium and induces intestinal inflammatory disease. Because of its potent cytotoxic and proinflammatory activities, we investigated the utility of TcdB in developing anti-tumor immunity. TcdB induced cell death in mouse colorectal cancer CT26 cells, and the intoxicated cells stimulated the activation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and subsequent T cell activation in vitro. Immunization of BALB/c mice with toxin-treated CT26 cells elicited potent anti-tumor immunity that protected mice from a lethal challenge of the same tumor cells and rejected pre-injected tumors. The anti-tumor immunity generated was cell-mediated, long-term, and tumor-specific. Further experiments demonstrated that the intact cell bodies were important for the immunogenicity since lysing the toxin-treated tumor cells reduced their ability to induce antitumor immunity. Finally, we showed that TcdB is able to induce potent anti-tumor immunity in B16-F10 melanoma model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of C. difficile toxin B for developing anti-tumor immunity.
Huang, T., Li, S., Li, G., Tian, Y., Wang, H., Shi, L., … Feng, H. (2014). Utility of Clostridium difficileToxin B for Inducing AntiTumor Immunity. PLoS ONE, 9(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110826