Relapses of primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in a female immunocompetent patient with persistent chlamydophila pneumoniae and human herpesvirus 8 infection

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Abstract

Background: We have previously reported the case of an immunocompetent female patient with a primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (PCALCL) located on her upper right eyelid characterized by the presence of a concurrent active infection by C. pneumoniae and Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). This finding suggested for the first time a possible association of C. pneumoniae and/or HHV8 infection, or both together, with PCALCL pathogenesis in non-immunocompromised and HIV-negative subjects. The subsequent course of the same patient's medical history is herein reported. Findings: During the 4 years following the surgical excision of the first PCALCL, the patient developed five further skin lesions located at different anatomical sites, all histologically proven as PCALCLs. The patient underwent several cycles of doxycycline as prophylaxis against Chlamydia. Skin presence of Chlamydia spp and HHV8 was investigated in all recurrences as well as in routine control blood samples. Amplification fragments corresponding to Chlamydia were found in all skin tissues analysed except one (4/5; 80 %), whereas it was not detected in any of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. Conversely, HHV8 was detected in 2/5 (40 %) of the skin biopsies, including the sample negative for Chlamydia, but in all the blood samples analysed. Conclusions: These findings further support the hypothesis of a potential role of C. pneumoniae and HHV8 infection in the development and course of the described cutaneous lymphoma. A reciprocally promoting interaction between the two pathogens may be supposed to be relevant for PCALC occurrence and relapse.

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Caselli, E., Borghi, A., Maritati, M., Gafà, R., Lanza, G., Di Luca, D., … Contini, C. (2016). Relapses of primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in a female immunocompetent patient with persistent chlamydophila pneumoniae and human herpesvirus 8 infection. Infectious Agents and Cancer, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13027-016-0079-4

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