It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation participates in obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Salicylates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) both have anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. The present study compared the effects of these drugs on obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as the metabolic and immunological phenotypes of the animal models. Both drugs improved high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. However, salicylates did not affect AT and ATM inflammation, whereas Pioglitazone improved these parameters. Interestingly, HFD and the drug treatments all modulated systemic inflammation as assessed by changes in circulating immune cell numbers and activation states. HFD increased the numbers of circulating white blood cells, neutrophils, and a pro-inflammatory monocyte subpopulation (Ly6Chi), whereas salicylates and Pioglitazone normalized these cell numbers. The drug treatments also decreased circulating lymphocyte numbers. These data suggest that obesity induces systemic inflammation by regulating circulating immune cell phenotypes and that antidiabetic interventions suppress systemic inflammation by normalizing circulating immune phenotypes. © 2013 Kim et al.
Kim, M. S., Yamamoto, Y., Kim, K., Kamei, N., Shimada, T., Liu, L., … Lee, J. (2013). Regulation of diet-induced adipose tissue and systemic inflammation by salicylates and Pioglitazone. PLoS ONE, 8(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082847