Background: Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) systems are frequently used as part of a stormwater harvesting treatment trains (e.g. biofilters (bio-retentions and rain-gardens) and wetlands). However, validation frameworks for such systems do not exist, limiting their adoption for end-uses such as drinking water. The first stage in the validation framework is pre-validation, which prepares information for further validation monitoring. Objectives: A pre-validation roadmap, consisting of five steps, is suggested in this paper. Detailed methods for investigating target micropollutants in stormwater, and determining challenge conditions for biofilters and wetlands, are provided. Methods: A literature review was undertaken to identify and quantify micropollutants in stormwater. MUSIC V5.1 was utilized to simulate the behaviour of the systems based on 30-year rainfall data in three distinct climate zones; outputs were evaluated to identify the threshold of operational variables, including length of dry periods (LDPs) and volume of water treated per event. Results: The paper highlights that a number of micropollutants were found in stormwater at levels above various worldwide drinking water guidelines (eight pesticides, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, pentachlorophenol, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate and a total of polychlorinated biphenyls). The 95th percentile LDPs was exponentially related to system design area while the 5th percentile length of dry periods remained within short durations (i.e. 2-8 hours). 95th percentile volume of water treated per event was exponentially related to system design area as a percentage of an impervious catchment area. Conclusions: The out-comings of this study show that pre-validation could be completed through a roadmap consisting of a series of steps; this will help in the validation of stormwater treatment systems.
Zhang, K., Randelovic, A., Aguiar, L. M., Page, D., McCarthy, D. T., & Deletic, A. (2015). Methodologies for pre-validation of biofilters and wetlands for stormwater treatment. PLoS ONE, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125979