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Objective: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are one of the major opportunistic pathogens and the incidence of CoNS bacteraemia is increasing. However, most of the CoNS-positive blood cultures are contaminants rather than true CoNS bacteraemia. In order to minimize contamination, we defined true CoNS bacteraemia as the patient that has two or more identical CoNS-positive blood cultures drawn within 48 h in this study and the objective of this study was to analyse the species distribution and antibiotic resistance and to identify risk factors for 30-day mortality of the true CoNS-bacteraemia. Method: By reviewing the electronic medical database, this study retrospectively analysed patients diagnosed as CoNS bacteraemia by blood cultures in a comprehensive tertiary care hospital in China from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2017. Result: A total of 1241 patients with 1562 episodes of CoNS-positive blood cultures were recorded in the database but only 157 patients were finally diagnosed as true CoNS bacteraemia after contaminants were excluded. All these 157 patients (12.7%, 157/1241) had bacteraemia-related clinical symptoms. Among the 157 patients, the most common species were Staphylococcus hominis (40.8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (36.3%) and Staphylococcus capitis (11.5%). The antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all CoNS had a high rate of resistance to penicillin (94.9%), oxacillin (93.6%) and erythromycin (92.4%). Resistance to gentamicin (22.3%) and rifampicin (10.8%) was low, and none of the bacteria were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. The 30-day mortality of patients with CoNS bacteraemia was up to 12.7% (20/157), and the multivariate logistics regression analysis showed that chronic renal failure (OR 5.9, 95% CI 1.6-21.5, p = 0.007) and chronic liver failure (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.2-13.1, p = 0.024) were both the significant independent risk factors for the 30-day mortality of CoNS bacteraemia. Conclusion: Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most common species in CoNS bacteraemia. All CoNS had high multi-drug resistance, but gentamicin and rifampicin had a relatively lower resistance and could be considered as alternative antibiotics for anti-CoNS bacteraemia in addition to vancomycin and linezolid. Additionally, patients with chronic renal failure or chronic liver failure have a higher 30-day mortality after the onset of CoNS bacteraemia.
Cui, J., Liang, Z., Mo, Z., & Zhang, J. (2019). The species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for poor outcome of coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteraemia in China. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-019-0523-5
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