Magnetophoresis is an important physical process with application to drug delivery, biomedical imaging, separation, and mixing. Other than empirically, little is known about how the magnetic field and magnetic properties of a solution affect the flux of magnetic particles. A comprehensive explanation of these effects on the transport of magnetic particles has not been developed yet. Here we formulate a consistent, constitutive equation for the magnetophoretic flux of magnetic nanoparticles suspended in a medium exposed to a stationary magnetic field. The constitutive relationship accounts for contributions from magnetic diffusion, magnetic convection, residual magnetization, and electromagnetic drift. We discovered that the key physical properties governing the magnetophoresis are magnetic diffusion coefficient, magnetic velocity, and activity coefficient, which depend on relative magnetic energy and the molar magnetic susceptibility of particles. The constitutive equation also reveals previously unknown ballistic and diffusive limits for magnetophoresis wherein the paramagnetic particles either aggregate near the magnet or diffusive away from the magnet, respectively. In the diffusive limit, the particle concentration is linearly proportional to the relative magnetic energy of the suspension of paramagnetic particles. The region of the localization of paramagnetic particles near the magnet decreases with increasing the strength of the magnet. The dynamic accumulation of nanoparticles, measured as the thickness of the nanoparticle aggregate, near the magnet compares well with the theoretical prediction. The effect of convective mixing on the rate of magnetophoresis is also discussed for the magnetic targeting applications.
Ayansiji, A. O., Dighe, A. V., Linninger, A. A., & Singh, M. R. (2020). Constitutive relationship and governing physical properties for magnetophoresis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(48), 30208–30214. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018568117