Primary amyloidosis preseting as small bowell encapsulation

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Amyloidosis is a pathological process which encompasses a spectrum of diseases that result from extracellular deposition of pathological fibrillar proteins. Clinical presentations vary depending on the organs involved. There is no documented case of amyloidosis presenting as small bowel encapsulation. A previously healthy 62-year-old man developed a small bowel obstruction in 1997. At surgery, a peculiar membrane encasing his entire small bowel was discovered. This appeared to have no vascularity and was removed without difficulty, exposing a grossly normal bowel. Histopathology revealed thick bands of collagen overlying the peritoneal surface, which was congo red positive and showed apple green birefringence. The findings were consistent with encapsulating peritonitis due to amyloidosis. There was no history or symptoms of any chronic inflammatory condition and he became symptom-free postoperatively. An abdominal fat pad biopsy failed to demonstrate amyloidosis. Endoscopic duodenal biopsies revealed classical primary amyloidosis. Quantitative immunoglobulins, lactate dehydrogenase, C3, C4 and beta-2 microglobulin were normal. Protein electrophoresis identified monoclonal paraprotein, immunoglobulin G lambda 3.7 g/L. Bone marrow biopsy and aspirate revealed only a mild plasmacytosis (5% to 10%). Echocardiogram and skeletal survey were normal. He had mild proteinuria. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, calcium, albumin and total protein were normal. No specific therapy was instituted. In January of 1998 the patient remained asymptomatic with no gastrointestinal, cardiovascular or constitutional symptoms. He had developed nephrotic range proteinuria (3.95 g/24 h), microalbuminuria, hypoalbuminemia and a renal biopsy consistent with renal amyloidosis. In 1999 there was an increase in the monoclonal paraprotein (6.2 g/L). The remaining investigations were normal except for an echocardiogram which showed left ventricular hypertrophy but a normal ejection fraction and no diastolic dysfunction. He went on to have high-dose chemotherapy and an autologous stem cell transplant in September, 2000. He has subsequently developed renal insufficiency. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of primary amyloidosis presenting as small bowel obstruction from encapsulating peritonitis. © 2004 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.




Jones, J., VanRosendaal, G., Cleary, C., Urbanski, S., & Woodman, R. C. (2004). Primary amyloidosis preseting as small bowell encapsulation. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 18(3), 169–172.

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