Monetary costs of agitation in older adults with Alzheimer's disease in the UK: Prospective cohort study

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Objective: While nearly half of all people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have agitation symptoms every month, little is known about the costs of agitation in AD. We calculated the monetary costs associated with agitation in older adults with AD in the UK from a National Health Service and personal social services perspective. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: London and the South East Region of the UK (LASER-AD study). Participants: 224 people with AD recruited between July 2002 and January 2003 and followed up for 54 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was health and social care costs, including accommodation costs and costs of contacts with health and social care services. Agitation was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) agitation score. Results: After adjustment, health and social care costs varied significantly by agitation, from £29 000 over a 1 year period with no agitation symptoms (NPI agitation score=0) to £57 000 at the most severe levels of agitation (NPI agitation score=12; p=0.01). The mean excess cost associated with agitation per person with AD was £4091 a year, accounting for 12% of the health and social care costs of AD in our data, and equating to £2 billion a year across all people with AD in the UK. Conclusions: Agitation in people with AD represents a substantial monetary burden over and above the costs associated with cognitive impairment.




Morris, S., Patel, N., Baio, G., Kelly, L., Lewis-Holmes, E., Omar, R. Z., … Livingston, G. (2015). Monetary costs of agitation in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease in the UK: Prospective cohort study. BMJ Open, 5(3).

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