To maintain semiconductor device scaling, in recent years industry has been forced to move from planar to non-planar device architectures. This alone has created the need to develop a radically new, non-destructive method for doping. Doping alters the electrical properties of a semiconductor, related to the access resistance. Low access resistance is necessary for high performance technology and reduced power consumption. In this work the authors reduced access resistance in top-down patterned Ge nanowires and Ge substrates by a non-destructive dopant in-diffusion process. Furthermore, an innovative electrical characterisation methodology is developed for nanowire and fin-based test structures to extract important parameters that are related to access resistance such as nanowire resistivity, sheet resistance, and active doping levels. Phosphine or arsine was flowed in a Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy reactor over heated Ge samples in the range of 650-700 °C. Dopants were incorporated and activated in this single step. No Ge growth accompanied this process. Active doping levels were determined by electrochemical capacitance-voltage free carrier profiling to be in the range of 1019 cm-3. The nanowires were patterned in an array of widths from 20-1000 nm. Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy of the doped nanowires showed minimal crystal damage. Electrical characterisation of the Ge nanowires was performed to contrast doping activation in thin-body structures with that in bulk substrates. Despite the high As dose incorporation on unpatterned samples, the nanowire analysis determined that the P-based process was the better choice for scaled features.
Duffy, R., Shayesteh, M., Thomas, K., Pelucchi, E., Yu, R., Gangnaik, A., … Holmes, J. D. (2014). Access resistance reduction in Ge nanowires and substrates based on non-destructive gas-source dopant in-diffusion. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2(43), 9248–9257. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4tc02018a
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