Risk factors for distant metastasis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

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Abstract

Background: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) may recur locally but rarely metastasizes. Fibrosarcomatous transformation in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (FS-DFSP) is said to have worse prognosis compared with ordinary DFSP (O-DFSP). Since DFSP rarely metastasizes, there have been few reports summarizing data on distant metastasis cases at single institution. The aim of this retrospective study is to review DFSP cases in order to analyze risk factors for metastasis. Patients and methods: This retrospective study involved 67 patients. We analyzed O-DFSP and FS-DFSP metastasis rates, metastasis sites, time to metastasis, the relationship between frequency of local recurrence and metastasis, and the relationship between primary tumor size and metastasis. Results: Distant metastasis was found in 5 (7.4 %) of 67 cases with DFSP. Of the five cases, the histopathological diagnosis was FS-DFSP in four cases and O-DFSP in one case. Out of five cases with metastasis, three had not recurred and two had recurred twice. No clear correlation was identified (Fisher’s exact test: p = 0.216). The primary tumor diameters in the metastatic cases were 15.0, 12.6, 20.5, 13.0, and 5.0 cm, respectively. The tumor diameters in metastatic cases were significantly larger (Fisher’s exact test: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In this study, we identified a stronger correlation between DFSP metastasis and tumor size. There was a high possibility that the cases with large tumors might be FS-DFSP, having high rate of metastasis and poor prognosis. In treatment of DFSP, early diagnosis before primary tumor growth and wide resection is considered important. Level of evidence V.

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Hayakawa, K., Matsumoto, S., Ae, K., Tanizawa, T., Gokita, T., Funauchi, Y., & Motoi, N. (2016). Risk factors for distant metastasis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 17(3), 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10195-016-0415-x

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