Centromochlus actually comprises eleven species, being the most problematic genus among the Centromochlinae, including morphologically heterogeneous taxa. The Centromochlus species have a wide distributional area on northern South America. Centromochlus meridionalis, new species, is described from headwaters of rio Teles Pires, contributor of rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and represents one of the southernmost records of a centromochlin catfish for Meridional Amazon rivers. Centromochlus meridionalis is promptly distinguished from its congeners by the small orbital diameter (relative to head length), and also by the combination of absence of first nuchal plate, anterior margin of dorsal-fin spine smooth, six branched rays in anal fin, seven pairs of ribs and 34 vertebrae. They are small sized catfishes with adults between 33 to 61 mm in standard length. The modified male anal fin is conspicuous, with the third unbranched ray enlarged, about twice the width of first unbranched ray. The new species inhabits a region strongly endangered by environmental changes due to expansion of agropecuary activities on Brazilian Amazon, which include this species in an uncertain situation regarding the conservation status of its natural population. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.
Sarmento-Soares, L. M., Cabeceira, F. G., Carvalho, L. N., Zuanon, J., & Akama, A. (2013). Centromochlus meridionalis, a new catfish species from the southern amazonian limits, Mato Grosso state, Brazil (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 11(4), 797–808. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252013000400007