Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter (β) related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters (R0,R∞,α,τα) We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters (β*, γ, δ ...). We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for β* =γ=δ=...= 0. Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. © 2013 Vosika et al.
Vosika, Z. B., Lazovic, G. M., Misevic, G. N., & Simic-Krstic, J. B. (2013). Fractional Calculus Model of Electrical Impedance Applied to Human Skin. PLoS ONE, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059483