In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Onen, O., Sisman, A., Gallant, N. D., Kruk, P., & Guldiken, R. (2012). A urinary Bcl-2 surface acoustic wave biosensor for early ovarian cancer detection. Sensors (Switzerland), 12(6), 7423–7437. https://doi.org/10.3390/s120607423