In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of -tocotrienol (GTT) in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA -gal) and promoted G 0/G 1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P < 0.05). GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P < 0.05) in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins. © Copyright 2012 Suzana Makpol et al.
Makpol, S., Abdul Rahim, N., Kien Hui, C., & Wan Ngah, W. Z. (2012). Inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and suppression of caspases by gamma-tocotrienol prevent apoptosis and delay aging in stress-induced premature senescence of skin fibroblasts. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/785743