Background and purpose Incontinence, hematuria, voiding frequency and pain during voiding are possible side effects of radiotherapy among patients treated for prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to develop multivariable NTCP models for these side effects. Material and methods This prospective cohort study was composed of 243 patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (stage T1-3). Genito-urinary (GU) toxicity was assessed using a standardized follow-up program. The GU toxicity endpoints were scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE 3.0) scoring system. The full bladder and different anatomical subregions within the bladder were delineated. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression analysis was used to analyze dose volume effects on the four individual endpoints. Results In the univariable analysis, urinary incontinence was significantly associated with dose distributions in the trigone (V55-V75, mean). Hematuria was significantly associated with the bladder wall dose (V40-V75, mean), bladder dose (V70-V75), cardiovascular disease and anticoagulants use. Pain during urinating was associated with the dose to the trigone (V50-V75, mean) and with trans transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). In the final multivariable model urinary incontinence was associated with the mean dose of the trigone. Hematuria was associated with bladder wall dose (V75) and cardiovascular disease, while pain during urinating was associated with trigone dose (V75) and TURP. No significant associations were found for increase in voiding frequency. Conclusions Radiation-induced urinary side effects are associated with dose distributions to different organs as risk. Given the dose effect relationships found, decreasing the dose to the trigone and bladder wall may reduce the incidence of incontinence, pain during voiding and hematuria, respectively.
Schaake, W., Van Der Schaaf, A., Van Dijk, L. V., van den Bergh, A. C. M., & Langendijk, J. A. (2018). Development of a prediction model for late urinary incontinence, hematuria, pain and voiding frequency among irradiated prostate cancer patients. PLoS ONE, 13(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197757