The increased use of structured overlay network for a variety of applications has attracted a lot of attention from both research community and attackers. However, the structural constraints, open nature (anybody can join and anybody may leave), and unreliability of its participant nodes significantly affect the performance of these applications and make it vulnerable to a variety of attacks such as eclipse, Sybil, and churn. One attack to compromise the service availability in overlay network is intentional churn (join/leave) attack, where a large number of malicious users will join and leave the overlay network so frequently that the entire structure collapses and becomes unavailable. The focus of this paper is to provide a new robust, efficient, and scalable hierarchical overlay architecture that will counter these attacks by providing a structure that can accommodate the fleeting behaviour of nodes without causing much structural inconsistencies. The performance evaluation showed that the proposed architecture has more failure resilience and self-organization as compared to chord based architecture. Experimental results have demonstrated that the effect of failures on an overlay is proportional to the size of failure.
Kaur, R., Sangal, A. L., & Kumar, K. (2016). A Persistent Structured Hierarchical Overlay Network to Counter Intentional Churn Attack. Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5191405