INTRODUCTION The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is comparable to the general population, but the effects of ADHD on CF treatment and the outcomes have been minimally investigated. METHODS Two cohorts were retrospectively reviewed, pediatric patients with comorbid CF/ADHD and patients with CF only. Each patient with CF/ADHD was age and sex-matched to a CF-only patient based on their most recent pulmonary office visit. Each patient was reviewed for forced expiratory volume in one-second percent predicted (FEV1%pred), body mass index (BMI) percentile, and hospitalizations for one year prior to the last pulmonary visit. RESULTS A total of 624 patients with CF were identified, with 52 having co-morbid CF/ADHD (8.3%). Of those identified, 46 met inclusion criteria and were analyzed in the CF/ADHD cohort. The mean total hospital admissions between the CF/ADHD cohort and the CF-only cohort were not statistically significant (2.22 vs 1.834, p=.467). The difference between the BMI percentiles was not statistically significant (48.634 vs 38.634, p=.135). The difference between FEV1%pred was statistically significant at 84% for the CF/ADHD group and 74% for the CF-only group (p=.042). CONCLUSION The difference in total hospital admissions between the CF/ADHD cohort and the CF-only cohort did not reach statistical significance, but the study was underpowered. There was a significant difference between FEV1%pred between the two groups, in favor of the comorbid CF/ADHD population. More research is needed to further evaluate the effects of a comorbid ADHD diagnosis on outcomes in the CF pediatric population.
Spitzer, N., Legare, T. B., Patel, P., Toselli, N., & Livingston, F. (2018). The Prevalence and Effect of Comorbid Cystic Fibrosis and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders on Hospitalizations: A Retrospective Analysis. Cureus. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3048