This study tested the\r<br />effectiveness of direct seeding to establish framework tree species, for restoring\r<br />forest ecosystems at an opencast lignite mine in Lampang Province, Thailand. A\r<br />randomized complete block design (RCBD) experiment tested five tree species (Afzelia\r<br />xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib, Eugenia\r<br />cumini (L.) Druce, Ficus\r<br />racemosa Roxb., Gmelina\r<br />arborea Roxb. and Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken) with 5\r<br />substrate amelioration treatments and 3 replicates. Germination percent was the\r<br />highest for Afzelia xylocarpa (88.1%) and lowest for Ficus racemosa (5.9%). The substrate amelioration treatments had no significant effects on\r<br />both seed germination and seedling establishment for all species tested. Schleichera\r<br />oleosa had the highest seedling establishment percent (45%) followed by Afzelia\r<br />xylocarpa (40%). A suitability\r<br />scoring system indicated that these two species were the most suitable for\r<br />direct seeding to complement other techniques of mine site rehabilitation in\r<br />northern Thailand, where establishment of indigenous forest tree species is\r<br />required for biodiversity recovery.
Hossain, F., Elliott, S., & Chairuangsri, S. (2014). Effectiveness of Direct Seeding for Forest Restoration on Severely Degraded Land in Lampang Province, Thailand. Open Journal of Forestry, 04(05), 512–519. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojf.2014.45055