Cattle commonly raised in Thailand have characteristics of Bos indicus (zebu). We do not know when or how cattle domestication in Thailand occurred, and so questions remain regarding their origins and relationships to other breeds. We obtained genome-wide SNP genotypic data of 28 bovine individuals sampled from four regions: North (Kho-Khaolampoon), Northeast (Kho-Isaan), Central (Kho-Lan) and South (Kho-Chon) Thailand. These regional varieties have distinctive traits suggestive of breed-like genetic variations. Fromthese data, we confirmed that all four Thai varieties are Bos indicus and that they are distinct fromother indicine breeds. Among these Thai cattle, a distinctive ancestry pattern is apparent, which is the purest within Kho-Chon individuals. This ancestral component is only present outside of Thailand among other indicine breeds in Southeast Asia. From this pattern, we conclude that a unique Bos indicus ancestor originated in Southeast Asia, and native Kho-Chon Thai cattle retain the signal of this ancestry with limited admixture of other bovine ancestors.
Wangkumhang, P., Wilantho, A., Shaw, P. J., Flori, L., Moazami-Goudarzi, K., Gautier, M., … Tongsima, S. (2015). Genetic analysis of Thai cattle reveals a Southeast Asian indicine ancestry. PeerJ, 2015(10). https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1318