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Background: Childhood-onset spondyloarthropathies usually start with enthesitis and peripheral arthritis. However, axial disease may develop afterward. Patients are most often classified, following revised (Edmonton 2011) ILAR criteria, as enthesitis-related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or unclassified juvenile idiopathic arthritis, particularly in cases of psoriasis in the patient or a first-degree relative. In adults, peripheral spondyloarthritis is classified by ASAS criteria. Methods: We retrospectively studied patients with childhood-onset spondyloarthropathies followed for more than one year in our referral centre. We did not exclude patients with a personal or familial history of psoriasis. Results: We included 114 patients followed between January 2008 and December 2015 for a median of 2.5 years (IQR = 2.3). Sixty-nine per-cent of patients fulfilled the revised ILAR classification criteria for enthesitis-related arthritis, and 92% the ASAS criteria for peripheral spondyolarthritis (p < 0.001). Axial disease and sacroiliitis were rare at disease onset. However, they appeared during follow-up in 63% and 47% of cases respectively, after a median disease duration of 2.6 (IC 95% [2.2-4.4]) and 5.3 years (IC 95% [4.1-7.7]), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that familial history of spondyloarthritis was associated with the presence of sacroiliitis and active disease at the latest follow-up (OR = 3.61 [1.5-8.7], p < 0.01 and 2.98 [1.2-7.3], p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Axial involvement developed in most patients within five years. Revised Edmonton criteria were less sensitive than ASAS criteria to classify patients as having childhood-onset spondyloarthropathies. The main risk factor for both sacroiliitis and persistent active disease was a familial history of spondyloarthritis.
Goirand, M., Breton, S., Chevallier, F., Duong, N. P., Uettwiller, F., Melki, I., … Quartier, P. (2018). Clinical features of children with enthesitis-related juvenile idiopathic arthritis / juvenile spondyloarthritis followed in a French tertiary care pediatric rheumatology centre. Pediatric Rheumatology, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12969-018-0238-9