L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO) are flavoproteins that catalyze the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to a keto-acid along with the production of H2O2 and ammonia. Interleukin 4 induced gene 1 (IL4I1) is a secreted LAAO expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells stimulated by microbial derived products or interferons, which is endowed with immunoregulatory properties. It is the first LAAO described in mammalian innate immune cells. In this work, we show that this enzyme blocks the in vitro and in vivo growth of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. This antibiotic effect is primarily mediated by H2O2 production but is amplified by basification of the medium due to the accumulation of ammonia. The depletion of phenylalanine (the primary amino acid catabolized by IL4I1) may also participate in the in vivo inhibition of staphylococci growth. Thus, IL4I1 plays a distinct role compared to other antibacterial enzymes produced by mononuclear phagocytes. © 2013 Puiffe et al.
Puiffe, M. L., Lachaise, I., Molinier-Frenkel, V., & Castellano, F. (2013). Antibacterial Properties of the Mammalian L-Amino Acid Oxidase IL4I1. PLoS ONE, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054589