ERBB2 overexpression in human breast cancer leads to invasive carcinoma but the mechanism is not clearly understood. Here we report that TOM1L1 is co-Amplified with ERBB2 and defines a subgroup of HER2 + /ER + tumours with early metastatic relapse. TOM1L1 encodes a GAT domain-containing trafficking protein and is a SRC substrate that negatively regulates tyrosine kinase signalling. We demonstrate that TOM1L1 upregulation enhances the invasiveness of ERBB2-Transformed cells. This pro-Tumoural function does not involve SRC, but implicates membrane-bound membrane-Type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of invadopodia, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix degradation. Mechanistically, ERBB2 elicits the indirect phosphorylation of TOM1L1 on Ser321. The phosphorylation event promotes GAT-dependent association of TOM1L1 with the sorting protein TOLLIP and trafficking of the metalloprotease MT1-MMP from endocytic compartments to invadopodia for tumour cell invasion. Collectively, these results show that TOM1L1 is an important element of an ERBB2-driven proteolytic invasive programme and that TOM1L1 amplification potentially enhances the metastatic progression of ERBB2-positive breast cancers.
Chevalier, C., Collin, G., Descamps, S., Touaitahuata, H., Simon, V., Reymond, N., … Benistant, C. (2016). TOM1L1 drives membrane delivery of MT1-MMP to promote ERBB2-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Nature Communications, 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10765