Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia at a Tertiary Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa

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Abstract

Background:Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in paediatric patients with bloodstream infections. The epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia, however, has not been well documented in children in South Africa.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted at a children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, to investigate the epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia from 2007-2011. The incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, management and outcomes of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia were compared.Results:Over the five year study period, 365 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia were identified. The annual incidence was 3.28 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. MRSA was responsible for 26% of S. aureus bacteraemia and 72% of nosocomial infections. Only six possible cases of community-acquired MRSA infections were described. MSSA bacteraemia was more likely to present as pulmonary and bone or joint infections, while bacteraemia without a source was the most common presentation with MRSA. Infants, children with malnutrition, and residents of long-term care facilities were at highest risk for MRSA bacteraemia. The overall case fatality rate for S. aureus bacteraemia was 8.8% over five years, with MRSA being the only significant risk factor for mortality.Conclusion:The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia and MRSA bacteraemia in children has remained stable over the past five years. MRSA is a predominantly nosocomial pathogen in children with S. aureus bacteraemia in Cape Town, South Africa. © 2013 Naidoo et al.

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Naidoo, R., Nuttall, J., Whitelaw, A., & Eley, B. (2013). Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia at a Tertiary Children’s Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS ONE, 8(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078396

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