Recently, many studies have investigated the relationship between the level of metals in the body and various diseases. The objective of this study was to examine any possible influence of periodontal disease upon the concentration of metals in oral fluid and blood and to explore the usability of applying cluster analysis coupled with the analysis of selected elements in oral fluid, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), for effectively distinguishing people affected by periodontitis from healthy individuals. The quantification of eight metals in oral fluid and blood samples was performed by two inductively coupled plasma techniques–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Most of the examined elements were detected at elevated concentration in the oral fluid of periodontal patients. However, the differences were statistically significant in the case of three metals: Cu, Mg and Mn (p < 0.05). Approximately, fivefold increase in the concentration of Cu, threefold-elevated levels of Mn and a twofold increase in the concentration of Mg were found in the oral fluid of the periodontal patients compared to the controls. Cluster analysis confirmed the statistical significance of the differences in the level of metals in the oral fluid between the two groups in most cases, plus enabled the correct classification of the subjects into patients and controls. The relationship between concentrations of metals and periodontal disease may in the future serve to prevent the development of such disease.
Herman, M., Golasik, M., Piekoszewski, W., Walas, S., Napierala, M., Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, M., … Florek, E. (2016). Essential and Toxic Metals in Oral Fluid–a Potential Role in the Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases. Biological Trace Element Research, 173(2), 275–282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-016-0660-0